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Depression: what is depressive disorder

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  • Post last modified:November 29, 2023

Key Facts 

Prevalence: Depression is a common mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide

Symptoms: It is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating.

Types: There are different types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.

Causes: Depression can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Life events, trauma, and chronic stress can contribute to its onset.

Diagnosis: A diagnosis is typically made by a healthcare professional through a clinical assessment of symptoms, their duration, and their impact on daily life.

Treatment: Depression is treatable, and treatment options may include psychotherapy (talk therapy), medication, lifestyle changes, and self-help strategies.


Depressive disorder, also known as depression is a common mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities. It can significantly affect a person’s daily life, including their emotions, behavior, and physical well-being. There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (formerly dysthymia), bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder, among others. Symptoms of depression may include changes in sleep and appetite, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of self-harm or suicide. It’s important to seek professional help for depression, as it can be effectively treated through therapy, medication, or a combination of both. If you or someone you know is struggling with depression, it’s essential to reach out to a mental health professional for support and treatment.

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Types of depressive disorder

There are several different types of depressive disorders, each with its own specific features and characteristics. Some common types include:

  • Major Depressive Disorder (MDD): This is the most common form of depression. It involves persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and a loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities. Symptoms can be severe and long-lasting.
  • Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia): This is a chronic form of depression that lasts for at least two years. It involves milder symptoms than MDD but can be long-lasting and impactful.
  • Bipolar Disorder: This condition involves cycles of depressive episodes and manic or hypomanic episodes. It’s characterized by extreme mood swings, from depression to periods of elevated mood and increased activity.
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): SAD is a type of depression that typically occurs during specific seasons, most commonly in the fall and winter when there is less natural sunlight. It often leads to symptoms like low energy, oversleeping, and overeating.
  • Psychotic Depression: This type of depression is accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations, which are not present in other forms of depression.
  • Peripartum (Postpartum) Depression: Occurs in new mothers after giving birth and involves feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion. It may interfere with the ability to care for the baby.
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): This condition involves severe mood and physical symptoms that occur in the days leading up to menstruation. It is more severe than regular premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • Atypical Depression: Atypical depression is characterized by symptoms such as increased appetite, weight gain, excessive sleep, and a heightened sensitivity to rejection.

Who does depression affect?

Depression can affect anyone, regardless of age, gender, socioeconomic status, or background. It is a widespread mental health condition that does not discriminate. Some key factors to consider:

  • Gender: Depression can affect both men and women. However, it is often reported that women are more likely to be diagnosed with depression, in part because they are more likely to seek help. Men may experience depression differently and may be less likely to recognize or admit their symptoms.
  • Age: Depression can impact individuals of all ages, from children and adolescents to adults and the elderly. There are specific forms of depression, such as postpartum depression, which affect individuals during certain life stages.
  • Genetics: A family history of depression can increase the risk to develop the condition. It suggests a genetic component, but environmental factors also play a significant role.
  • Life Events: Significant life events, such as trauma, loss, financial stress, or relationship problems, can trigger or exacerbate depression. These stressors can affect anyone at various points in life.
  • Neurobiology: Imbalances in brain chemistry and neurotransmitters are believed to play a role in depression. This can affect anyone with these imbalances, although the exact causes are not always clear.
  • Chronic Illness and Medications: Certain chronic illnesses and medications, including some used to treat other health conditions, can increase the risk of depression.
  • Environmental and Social Factors: Factors such as exposure to chronic stress, isolation, lack of social support, and limited access to mental health care can contribute to depression.

What are the symptoms of depressive disorder ?

The symptoms of depressive disorder can vary from person to person, but they typically include a combination of the following:

  • Persistent Sadness: Feeling sad, empty, or hopeless most of the day, or nearly every day.
  • Loss of Interest or Pleasure: A diminished interest in activities or hobbies that were once enjoyed.
  • Significant Changes in Appetite or Weight: This can result in weight loss or gain.
  • Sleep Disturbances: Changes in sleep patterns, such as insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep) or hypersomnia (over sleeping).
  • Fatigue: Feeling unusually tired and lacking energy, even after restful sleep.
  • Difficulty Concentrating: Struggling with focus, memory, and decreases decision-making.
  • Feelings of Worthlessness or Guilt: Experiencing excessive or inappropriate guilt or self-blame.
  • Agitation or Restlessness: Feeling physically and mentally agitated or slowed down.
  • Physical Symptoms: Experiencing unexplained physical aches and pains.
  • Attempted Death or Suicide: to cause personal danger to oneself such as death or suicide attempt
  • Social Withdrawal: Withdrawing from social activities social interactions and relationships.
  • Irritability: Feeling easily irritated or angered, often without a clear cause.
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Diagnosis and Tests Of depressive disorder 

The diagnosis of depressive disorder is typically made by a qualified mental health professional, such as a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist. They use a combination of methods and assessments to determine whether an individual has depressive disorder. Here are some of the key components of the diagnostic process:

  • Clinical Evaluation: The first step is often a comprehensive clinical interview where the mental health professional asks the individual about their symptoms, medical history, family history of mental health conditions, and recent life events or stressors.
  • Diagnostic Criteria: The mental health professional will refer to established diagnostic criteria, such as those in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), to assess whether the individual’s symptoms align with the criteria for depressive disorder.
  • Physical Examination: A physical examination may be performed to rule out any underlying medical problems that could be contributing to the symptoms.
  • Laboratory Tests: Blood tests may be ordered to check for thyroid problems or other medical issues that can mimic the symptoms of depression.
  • Psychological Tests: Standardized psychological assessments and questionnaires may be used to assess the severity and nature of the depressive symptoms.
  • Observation and History: Information from family members, friends, or loved ones may also be considered to provide a more comprehensive picture of the individual’s mental health.
  • Duration and Impact: The mental health professional will evaluate the duration and impact of the symptoms on the individual’s daily life, including work, relationships, and overall well-being.

Management and Treatment Of depressive disorder 

The management and treatment of depressive disorder typically involve a combination of approaches tailored to the individual’s needs and the severity of their symptoms. Here are some common methods for managing and treating depressive disorder:

  • Psychotherapy (Talk Therapy): Psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal therapy (IPT), or psychodynamic therapy, can help individuals identify and address negative thought patterns, develop coping skills, and improve emotional well-being. Therapy can be conducted one-on-one or in group settings.
  • Medication: Antidepressant medications, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), may be prescribed by a psychiatrist or a medical doctor. These medications can help regulate neurotransmitters in the brain and alleviate depressive symptoms.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Healthy lifestyle habits, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, adequate sleep, and stress management, can play a significant role in managing depression. These can complement other treatment methods.
  • Supportive Relationships: Having a strong support system, including family and friends, can be crucial for individuals with depression. Building and maintaining positive social connections can help reduce feelings of isolation.
  • Self-Help Strategies: Self-help techniques, such as mindfulness and relaxation exercises, can be effective in managing symptoms. These techniques can be learned through therapy or self-guided resources.
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): In cases of severe depression that do not respond to other treatments, ECT may be considered. ECT involves the controlled induction of seizures under anesthesia and is typically used when other treatments have not been effective.
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): TMS is a non-invasive procedure that uses magnetic fields to stimulate specific areas of the mind. It is typically used when other treatments have not worked or have produced unwanted side effects.
  • Hospitalization: In severe cases where there is a risk of harm to oneself or others, hospitalization in a psychiatric facility may be necessary to ensure safety and provide intensive treatment.

How can i Prevent depressive disorder 

Preventing depressive disorder is not always possible, as it can be influenced by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. However, there are steps you can take to reduce your risk and promote good mental health:

  • Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle:
    • Engage in regular physical activity.
    • Eat a balanced diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables, enough water and whole grains.
    • Get quality sleep (7-9 hours per night).
    • Avoid excessive use of alcohol and drugs.
  • Manage Stress:
    • Develop stress management techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation, or mindfulness.
    • Set realistic goals and prioritize tasks to reduce unnecessary stress.
  • Build a Strong Support System:
    • Cultivate positive relationships with friends and family.
    • Seek support from loved ones when facing life challenges.
  • Seek Professional Help:
    • If you have a family history of depression or are experiencing early signs of depressive symptoms, consult a mental health professional. Early intervention can be effective.
  • Learn Coping Strategies:
    • Develop effective coping mechanisms to deal with life’s ups and downs.
    • Enhance problem-solving skills and resilience.
  • Limit Exposure to Negative Influences:
    • Minimize exposure to sources of chronic stress, including toxic relationships or work environments.
  • Mindful Use of Social Media:
    • Be aware of how social media affects your mental health status. Limit time spent on platforms that contribute to negative emotions.
  • Stay Informed: Understand the risk factors for depression and educate yourself about mental health. This can help you recognize signs in yourself or others.
  • Early Intervention:
    • If you or someone you know experiences symptoms of depression, seek professional help promptly. The early treatment is initiated, the better the outcomes.
  • Positive Self-Care:
    • Prioritize self-care and engage in activities that can bring joy and relaxation.


Depressive disorders can significantly impact individuals’ daily functioning and overall well-being. Effective treatment often involves a combination of psychotherapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Early intervention is crucial to prevent the exacerbation of symptoms and improve long-term outcomes. However, the stigma surrounding mental health remains a barrier to seeking help. Increasing awareness, promoting open conversations, and fostering a supportive environment are essential steps toward better understanding and addressing depressive disorders in society.